Arrowleaf Balsamroot

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I live in the Methow Valley in the northeastern cascades of Washington State. The valley is just over 50 miles long and is located a couple hours (as the crow flies) from the Canadian border and 4 hours from the Pacific Ocean. 

The valley boasts of large tracts of wilderness and a variety of ecological niches, from the sagebrush steppe to riparian rivers, to evergreen forests and alpine peaks. 

Each season in the Methow is distinct, with intense variations in temperature and plant life. In May, the otherwise drab hillsides of the sagebrush steppe burst alive with a diversity of wildflowers, the most prominent being the flower of the valley, Arrowleaf Balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagitatta). 

This wild flower of the Asteraceae family covers hillsides from April to June, peaking in the middle of May. Besides being a visual delight, this plant has played an important role in the ecology of the Methow for thousands of years. Dense roots run deep into the rocky soils, preventing erosion; large leaves provide habitat to many scurrying animals and the leaves, flowers and seeds provide an important food source to mammals as small as field mice, to ungulates to humans. The resinous roots have been an important medicine for humans for countless eons. 

This plant grows all over western North America. The USDA range map shows it growing as far east as the Dakotas, as far south as the US/Mexican border and throughout western Canada as well. 

Arrowleaf Balsamroot Range mapArrowleaf Balsamroot Range Map
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In late April the hillsides are turning green, the first flowers are beginning to emerge, and the anticipation of yellow hillsides fills the community. Talk at the farmer’s market centers around whether this will be a good flower year or not. Tourists ask, what are those wild sunflowers on the hills?

The leaves are large and arrow shaped, hence the common name. Ethnobotanical reports indicate these large leaves were poulticed and used on burns and wounds. 

Recently, someone commented to me that this flower grows like a weed, but I was quick to interject. Although it’s very common in our valley, arrowleaf balsamroot plants take many years to mature and are difficult to transplant. When we harvest this plant we harvest with respect for each plant, understanding the abundance of this plant is a gift of the valley.

The root is the main part used as medicine. Herbalist Michael Moore describes arrowleaf balsamroot as a cross between echinacea and osha. I can’t personally attest to arrowleaf balsamroot being an immunomodulator but it certainly has an affinity for the respiratory system.

Like many resins the root is decidedly pungent in taste. A small taste of the root and I feel the warming and drying qualities as the energy goes to my lungs, creating the need to clear my throat or cough. Oftentimes taking a few drops of the tincture creates a reflex of taking a large breath. 

I recently was teaching a class to a group of students, many of whom had a cold. Passing around the tincture of arrowleaf balsamroot, students with congestion in their lungs reported feeling expectoration from their lungs and students with head colds felt stuck mucous in their sinuses start to release.

Root of Arrowleaf BalsamrootRoot of Arrowleaf Balsamroot
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I prefer to use arrowleaf balsamroot as a fresh root tincture in 95% alcohol. I often combine this tincture with elderberry, osha and honey. 

Arrowleaf balsamroot is a stimulating expectorant, stimulating diaphoretic, and an antimicrobial suitable for sore throats. 

I’ve received the best results when using it as a simple for productive coughs that last beyond other symptoms of the original cold or flu. 

For sore throats I like to mix 10 - 20 drops of the tincture with a spoonful of honey that is then swallowed. I often combine it with a tincture of cottonwood buds.  

I have yet to use arrowleaf balsamroot for a UTI, but Michael Moore describes arrowleaf balsamroot as an disinfecting diuretic. Darcy Williamson reports that taken in too large of a dose it will create kidney irritation. 

For external use it infuses into oil very nicely; because of the resins I use heat to extract the root. This warming aromatic oil relieves pain brought on by blood stagnation such as sore shoulder muscles or tension associated with coldness. Used as a liniment it also lends itself well to sore muscles and can also be used to disinfect wounds or kill fungi living on the skin. 

Although lacking experience with this myself I’ve seen ethnobotanical records indicating that arrowleaf balsamroot is useful for gastrointestinal complaints and toothaches. 

I only need one small root a year to make enough tincture and oil for myself and clients. Heading out into the brown forest outside of my cabin I look for plants with a modest amount of foliage indicating the size of the root. 

Large plants can be several decades old and boast a large gnarly root. These large roots can easily be 5-8 feet deep into the earth. Harvesting arrowleaf balsamroot is no easy task, so I am content with my smaller sized roots and leave the mature plants to grow. 

Besides searching for the right size I also look for plants on flat ground. Those plants on steep hillsides are doing an important job of keeping the hillside in place. Lastly, I harvest from a well-developed stand. 

I use a traditional digging tool for my root harvests. I find sticks are often easier to use as a harvest tool than shovels since shovels can easily slice roots and can often get caught on the plethora of rocks hiding in the soil where arrowleaf balsamroots live. Patience and time rewards me with a taproot the size of a large carrot. A hard outer bark envelopes a woody root in the center. I break apart the outer bark with a hammer, mince the inner bark and tincture them both. The resins from the root cover the cutting board, knife and hands. Alcohol works well to clean them off. 

In the north, winter is a time for animals and plants to rest. In our valley the ground is covered with many feet of snow blanketing all the plants beneath the soil. Arrowleaf balsamroot rests in its roots, waiting until spring to bring forth its many gifts once more. 

Above ground we nestle next to the wood stove and give our thanks for the medicine of arrowleaf balsamroot.

Traditional Digging StickTraditional Digging Stick
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Botanically Speaking

Arrowleaf Balsamroot is a perennial growing throughout western North America as far east as the Dakotas, as far south as California and throughout western Canada as well. It grows in a variety of habitats, including forested mountains and the sage brush steppe. 

The taproot is covered in a hard bark and is fairly resinous. Depending on the growing habits and age of the plant, the root can reach several meters into the ground and weigh over 30 pounds. 

The leaves can be fairly large, around 20 inches in length and are arrow shaped or triangular. 

The flower looks like a sunflower with yellow ray flowers. The entire flower head is about the size of a small fist. 

The seeds are the size of a grain of rice and are darkly colored, ranging from green to brown to black depending on the maturity. 

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This article was originally published in Plant Healer Magazine.

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